intro to behavioral research quiz

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QUIZ 9

1) An independent variable that cannot be randomly assigned is called a

A) Control variable

B) Natural treatment variable

C) Dependent variable

D) All of the above

2) An experiment that manipulates two or more independent variables is referred to as a _______________design

A) Between-subjects

B) Within-subjects

C) Single-factorial

D) Multifactorial

3) Your best bet to establish that the independent variable causes changes in the dependent variable.

A) Latin-squares design

B) Quasi experiment

C) Within-subjects design

D) True experiment

4) What is the difference between a single-factor design and a multi-factorial design?

A) A single-factor design is non-experimental whereas a multi-factorial is

experimental.

B) A single-factor design is experimental whereas a multi-factorial design is non-

experimental.

C) A single-factor design has one independent variable whereas as a multi-factorial

design has two or more independent variables.

D) A single-factor design has one dependent variable whereas as a multi-factorial

design has two or more dependent variables.

5) Experimental control ideally produces groups that are identical except for their

experience with

A) The independent variable

B) The dependent variable

C) Unmeasured variables

D) The confounding variable

6) This is a characteristic unique to true experiments.

A) Independent variable

B) Dependent variable

C) Control variable

D) Random assignment

7) In experiments, independent variables are often referred to as

A) Extraneous variables

B) Confounds

C) Factors

D) Variances

8) Tyler presents each participant with a gift of $5, $10, or $15 and then he measures his participants’ generosity in a subsequent task. This study is best described as a ______.

A) within-subjects single-factor experiment

B) between-subjects single-factor experiment

C) within-subjects multifactorial experiment

D) between-subjects multifactorial experiment

9) In _____ designs, participants experience each level of the ___ variable.

A) Between-subjects; independent

B) Between-subjects; dependent

C) Within-subjects; independent

D) Within-subjects; dependent

10) In ________ designs, experimental error comes from _____, when experiencing one condition affects the experience of another condition.

A) Between-subjects; individual differences

B) Between-subjects; carryover effects

C) Within-subjects; individual differences

D) Within-subjects; carryover effects

11) Internal validity most directly speaks to a researcher’s ability to

A) Generalize a study’s findings

B) Publicize a study’s findings

C) Attribute scores on the dependent variable to the effect of the independent variable

D) Attribute scores on the independent variable to the effect of the dependent variable

12) Adams and Kleck (2003) manipulated emotional expression (anger/fear) and gaze direction (direct/averted) of faces. All participants made speeded judgments as to whether the face displayed anger or fear. What is the correct notation for the factorial design used in this study?

A) 2 x 4

B) 4 x 2

C) 3 x 3

D) 2 x 2

13) Adams and Kleck (2003) manipulated emotional expression (anger/fear) and gaze direction (direct/averted) of faces. All participants made speeded judgments as to whether the face displayed anger or fear. What is the dependent variable?

A) Speeded judgment

B) Emotional Expression

C) Gaze Direction

D) Anger faces

14) Adams and Kleck (2003) manipulated emotional expression (anger/fear) and gaze direction (direct/averted) of faces. All participants made speeded judgments as to whether the face displayed anger or fear. What are the independent variables?

A) Anger faces, Speeded Judgment

B) Emotional expression, Gaze Direction

C) Fear faces, Speeded Judgment

D) All of the above

15) What were the main effects tested in the Adams and Kleck (2003) study?

A) Emotional Expression, Gaze Direction

B) Gaze Direction, Speeded Judgment

C) Emotional Expression, Speeded Judgment

D) All of the above

16) If in the Adams and Kleck (2003) study, participants had their fastest response times for anger faces than for fear faces regardless of gaze direction, this would mean that the results showed a:

A) Main effect for emotion expression

B) Main effect for gaze direction

C) Main effect or speeded judgment

D) All of the above

17) If in the Adams and Kleck (2003) study, participants had their fastest response times for faces with direct eye gaze than for faces with averted eye gaze, regardless of emotional expression, this would mean that the results showed a:

A) Main effect for emotion expression

B) Main effect for gaze direction

C) Main effect or speeded judgment

D) All of the above

18) If in the Adams and Kleck (2003) study, participants had their fastest response times for anger faces with direct eye gaze, this would mean that the results showed ——————– interaction

A) Emotional Expression X Speeded Judgment

B) Gaze Direction X Speeded Judgment

C) Emotional Expression X Gaze Direction

D) Emotional Expression X Eye Test

19) You test a main effect for each _________variable.

A) Control

B) Dependent

C) Independent

D) Intervening

20) In a 2x2x3 design, there are _______ conditions.

A) 12

B) 3

C) 6

D) 9

21) In a 2×2 design, you test for _______ interaction(s).

A) 1

B) 0

C) 2

D) 4

22) _______ interaction(s) can be a tested in a single-factor experiment.

A) One

B) Two

C) Zero

D) Three

23) Julie uses a within-subjects design to study the effects of caffeine (none or 8 ounces of coffee) and exercise (none or 10 min of jogging) on cognitive performance. How many groups of participants will she need?

A) One

B) Two

C) Four

D) Six

24) Compared to a between-subjects approach, a within-subjects multifactorial experimental design ______.

A) is more costly

B) is more affected individual differences

C) requires fewer participants

D) is less affected by carryover effects

25) Bill is studying how individuals’ ability to concentrate is affected by both music type (pop vs. classical) and volume (soft vs. loud). If he finds that concentration is best when classical music is played softly this will be referred to as a(n) ______.

A) interaction

B) factorial effect

C) main effect

D) 2 ´ 2 effect

26) Bill is studying how individuals’ ability to concentrate is affected by both music type (pop vs. classical) and volume (soft vs. loud). If he finds that concentration is best with classical music regardless of whether played softly or loudly this will be referred to as a(n) ______.

A) interaction

B) factorial effect

C) main effect

D) 2 ´ 2 effect

**textbook:Research Methods in Psychology: Investigating Human Behavior Front Cover Paul G. Nestor, Russell K. Schutt

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