government glossary, history homework help

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Directions: Use this glossary to complete the final Lesson Review located after the glossary.

Abridging – lessening or reducing certain rights
Accusation – charge of wrongdoing made against someone.
Affidavit – a written statement that the person making it swears to be true
Affirmation – a declaration made by a person that he or she is telling the truth.
Amend – to change or add to

Bail – money given to set free an arrested person from jail until a trial takes place
Banned – not allowed
Boycott – to avoid using, buying, or dealing with as a means of protest

Cabinet – presidential advisory board
Capital punishment – the death penalty
Censure – to express disapproval
Charters – legal documents issued by governments to define the purpose and privileges of corporations
Citizenship – the status of a member of a country
Civil – relating to ordinary community life as opposed to criminal proceedings (as in civil court)
Civil rights – basic freedoms guaranteed to citizens by the constitution
Commissions – independent government agencies given powers by the legislative branch.
Common law – unwritten body of law based on past actions and decision
Compelled – forced to made to do something
Compensation – payment for services or for damages
Compromise – a settlement of differences in which each side gives up something
Compulsory – something that must be done
Conciliator – one who settles disputes
Continental Congress – elected representatives advising the colonists on policies regarding relations with Britain
Concurrent – sharing by two different persons or groups acting in agreement
Confronted – met face to face
Construed – understood in a certain way
Controversy – dispute
Counsel – a lawyer who advises a client

Defamation – harming the good name of another by false making statements
Define – to state the precise meaning
Delegate – one authorized to act as a representative for others
Democracy – government by the people
Direct democracy – a system of government in which people participate directly in decision making through voting on issues
Discrimination – the act of judging people on the basis of prejudice
Dissent – to disagree or withhold approval on an issue
Disparage – to hold in low regard
Domestic – actions within a home or within a country
Due process – legal proceeding carried out according to rules and procedures

Elastic clause – powers delegated to Congress giving the power to carry out its other responsibilities
Eminent domain – the right of a government to take private property for public use because its power extends to all the nation’s lands
Establishment clause – part of the First Amendment to the constitution prohibiting the government from establishing a national religion
Excessive – more than is needed
Executive – the power to carry out laws

Federalism – government in which the power is divided among national and state governments
Fundamental rights – basic or essential freedoms

Governor – person who carries out the laws of a state
Grand jury – a group of people who decide if a person should be charged with a crime

Immoral – not in keeping with accepted ideas and actions
Impairing – reductions in usefulness
Impartial – not taking sides in a dispute
Impeach – to accuse a public official with wrong or illegal behavior before a special type of court
Incrimination – to charge with or involve in a crime
Indictment – written statement by a grand jury charging a person with possible wrongdoing
Infamous – action or deed of the worst kind
Infringed – acted in a way with intent to take over part of another’s right
Internment – confinement or imprisonment
Interstate – between two or more states

Jeopardy – danger
Joint resolutions – acts proposed by both houses of Congress
Judicial – having the power to interpret laws
Jurisdiction – authority

Legislative – having power to make laws
Legislature – house of government responsible for making laws
Libel – false statements tending to harm the reputation of another person

Martial – dealing with the military or with war
Militia – military forces that are on call for service in emergencies
Misdemeanors – less serious crimes or wrongdoings
Monarchy – rule by one person (king or queen)

Nomination – the act or process of being named to run for an elected office
Nullify – to take away the effect and value of something

Obscenity – something or that violates the general sense of decency
Oppressive – to keep down the spirits of others
Ordain – to establish by law
Override – to pass over an objection

Parliament – the supreme legislative body in Great Britain (England)
Petition – a formal written request signed by supporters of the request
Plea bargain – the process when an accused person agrees to plead guilty to a lesser crime to avoid a trial
Political party – an organized group that tries to control the government through elections
Popular sovereignty – self-government based on the will of the people
Pornography – words or pictures intended only to arouse sexual interest
Posterity – all future generations
Preamble – introduction to a statement
Precedent – a legal decision that serves as an example in later court cases
Presentment – offering or presenting evidence to a grand jury
Preserved – kept or held
Presumption of innocence – a person is assumed innocent until proven guilty
Probable cause – valid reason for police to search or arrest a person
Proportional representation – presentation based on differences in population size between areas
Prosecutions – actions to bring an accused person to trial

Radical – fundamental or extreme
Ratified – accepted by a vote
Redress – to remove the cause of
Repeal – officially withdraw
Republic – system of government where people elect officials to represent them
Residual – remaining or residing with someone or something
Revolutionary – favoring a great change in the status quo

Salutary neglect – when a government allows people to rule themselves as long as it benefits the government
Sedition – speaking or acting against lawful authority in a time of emergency
Statutes – laws passed by a legislative body
Sue – to seek justice through the legal process
Supreme – greatest in rank, power, or authority

Tariff – charges or taxes place by the government on imported goods
Tranquility – peacefulness
Treason – acting against one’s own country in a time of war
Treaties – written agreements between two or more states
Tyranny – a government where a single ruler possesses all the power

Unbiased – not favoring any side in a dispute

Vested – authority given to a person or group
Veto – to reject a law by refusing to approve it

Writ of habeas corpus – a court order requiring the government to release a prisoner unless good cause can be shown
Writ of mandamus – document that mandates, or requires, a public official to perform certain duties

Lesson 11 Review

Application Activity #1:

Directions: Define each of the following terms in your own words and provide an example that illustrates the meaning of the term.

Eminent Domain

Application Activity #2:

Choose any ten of the terms listed above. Conduct an internet search to identify an example of each term as it applies to current events. Write a summary of each event and how it illustrates the meaning or application of the term. Don’t forget to cite your sources.

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